# RDBMS and SQL Relational ... Tuple Relational Calculus Domain Relational Calculus Popular Language...

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Venkatesh Vinayakarao (Vv)

RDBMS and SQL

Relational Algebra

Venkatesh Vinayakarao venkateshv@cmi.ac.in

http://vvtesh.co.in

Chennai Mathematical Institute

Slide contents are borrowed from the official website of the course text. For the authors’ original version of slides, visit: https://www.db-book.com/db6/slide-dir/index.html.

mailto:venkatesh.v@iiits.in http://vvtesh.co.in/ https://www.db-book.com/db6/slide-dir/index.html

Preliminaries

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Quiz

• A relation R from a set A to set B is a subset of the cartesian product A x B. True/False?

{ }( , )Relation R =

Let’s say a relation exists between the reds:

The Fly on the Ceiling - Descartes

37

French mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650)

Image Source: http://sites.psu.edu/solvingproblems https://wild.maths.org/ren%C3%A9-descartes-and-fly-ceiling vectorstock.com

http://sites.psu.edu/solvingproblems https://wild.maths.org/ren%C3%A9-descartes-and-fly-ceiling

A Relation

• Let the set, id = {1,2,3}

• Let the set, names = {vv, sd}

• What is id x names?

• We have a relation if we assign a sequential id to each name.

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id name

1 sd

2 vv

id name

1 sd

1 vv

2 sd

2 vv

3 sd

3 vv

Relational Algebra and Query Languages

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Query Languages

Relation 1 Relation x Relation y

Query Language

Procedural Language Relational Algebra

Declarative Languages Tuple Relational Calculus

Domain Relational Calculus

Popular Language SQL

Relational Algebra

Relation 1 Relation x Relation y

Query Language

Fundamental Operations select, project, rename

set difference, cartesian product, union

More Operations set intersection, natural join, assignment

Select Operation

• Notation: p(r) where p is called the selection predicate

• Example of selection: dept_name=“Physics”(instructor)

Select Operation

• Example of selection: dept_name=“Physics”(instructor)

Project Operation

• Notation: A1, A2,..,Ak (r) where Ai are attribute names

• Example of projection: ID, name, salary (instructor)

• Duplicate rows removed from result, since relations are sets

Projection

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ID, name, salary (instructor)

Union Operation

• Notation: r s. Defined as:

r s = {t | t r or t s}

• For r s to be valid: • r, s must have the same arity (same number of attributes) • The attribute domains must be compatible (example: 2nd column

of r deals with the same type of values as does the 2nd column of s)

• Example: to find all courses taught in the Fall 2009 semester,

or in the Spring 2010 semester, or in both

course_id ( semester=“Fall” Λ year=2009 (section))

course_id ( semester=“Spring” Λ year=2010 (section))

Union, Selection and Projection

• course_id ( semester=“Fall” Λ year=2009 (section)) course_id ( semester=“Spring” Λ year=2010 (section))

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Set Difference Operation

• Notation: r – s. Defined as

r – s = {t | t r and t s}

• Example: to find all courses taught in the Fall 2009 semester,

but not in the Spring 2010 semester

course_id ( semester=“Fall” Λ year=2009 (section)) −

course_id ( semester=“Spring” Λ year=2010 (section))

Union, Selection and Projection

• course_id ( semester=“Fall” Λ year=2009 (section)) −

course_id ( semester=“Spring” Λ year=2010 (section))

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Set-Intersection Operation

• Notation: r s

• Defined as:

• r s = { t | t r and t s }

Quiz: True/False? r s = r – (r – s)

Cartesian-Product Operation

• Notation r x s

instructor relation teaches relation

The instructor X teaches table

Join Operation

• The Cartesian-Product instructor X teaches associates every tuple of instructor with every tuple of teaches.

• Most of the resulting rows have information about instructors who did NOT teach a particular course.

• To get only those tuples of instructor X teaches that pertain to instructors and the courses that they taught, we write:

instructor.id = teaches.id (instructor x teaches ))

Join Operation (Cont.)

• instructor.id = teaches.id (instructor x teaches))

Join Operation (Cont.)

• The join operation allows us to combine a select operation and a Cartesian-Product operation into a single operation.

• Consider relations r (R) and s (S). Let “theta” be a predicate on attributes in the schema R “union” S. The join operation r ⋈𝜃 s is defined as follows:

𝑟 ⋈𝜃 𝑠 = 𝜎𝜃 (𝑟 × 𝑠)

• Thus

instructor.id = teaches.id (instructor x teaches ))

• Can equivalently be written as

instructor⋈ instructor.id = teaches.id

teaches.

Rename Operation

• Allows us to refer to a relation by more than one name.

• Example:

x (E)

returns the expression E under the name X

• If a relational-algebra expression E has arity n, then

returns the result of expression E under the name X, and with the attributes renamed to A1 , A2 , …., An .

)(),..., 2

, 1

( E n

AAAx

Find the highest salary in the university • Steps to reach the solution:

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95000

Find the highest salary in the university • Compute instructor x instructor

• Compute

• Compute

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We use rename operation to distinguish the two salary attributes.

Relational Algebra

• A basic expression in the relational algebra consists of either one of the following: • A relation in the database

• A constant relation

• Let E1 and E2 be relational-algebra expressions; the following are all relational-algebra expressions: • E1 E2 • E1 – E2 • E1 x E2 • p (E1), P is a predicate on attributes in E1 • s(E1), S is a list consisting of some of the attributes in E1 • x (E1), x is the new name for the result of E1

Fundamental Operations

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The select, project, rename, set difference, cartesian product, and

union are sufficient to express queries!

Extended Operations

• Set Intersection • Find the set of all courses taught in both the Fall 2017 and the

Spring 2018 semesters

• Assignment • Find all instructor in the “Physics” and Music department.

Physics dept_name=“Physics” (instructor)

Music dept_name=“Music” (instructor) Physics Music

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Result

course_id ( semester=“Fall” Λ year=2017 (section)) course_id ( semester=“Spring” Λ year=2018 (section))

Aggregate Functions

• Improves ease of use

• Most common functions:

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Functions

sum

max

min

avg

count

Calligraphic G Notation

Compute sum of all values of attribute c on relation r.

Summary

• Very much like normal algebra (x – y). We use relations instead of numbers as basic expressions.

• Basis for commercial query languages such as SQL.

• Three major components: • Fundamental Operations

• Extended Operations

• Aggregate Functions

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